Protists and Fungi


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SB3. Students will derive the relationship between single-celled and multi-celled organisms and the increasing complexity of systems.

Learning Tasks

  • Distinguish between the plant-like (algae) and animal-like (protozoa) Protists.
  • Contrast the means of motility among the protozoans and justify use of that characteristic as a means of classification.
  • Contrast the pigmentation among the algae and justify use of that characteristic as a means of classification.
  • Identify common representative species of protists by class.
  • Produce experimental evidence that shows that yeast are heterotrophic and require nutrients such as sugar for optimal growth.
  • Research protists and fungi to determine what species are harmful and which are helpful.
  • Identify fungi structural components that make them significantly different from protists and other heterotrophs.

Click here to download a list of key terms for this module.

The score from this assessment does not count as a part of your grade for this course but will give your instructor a better idea of how to help facilitate your learning in this unit.

Go to the navigation bar for the course and click on QUIZZES. Choose the quiz titled Protists and Fungi Pre-Assessment.

We'll be exploring ideas about fungi later in this module. To better understand what fungi are and how they behave, we'll be conducting an experiment that involves yeast. Since the experiment may take more than 3 days to conduct, it's a good idea to begin doing it now. As we conduct the experiment we will have time to think and learn more about fungi and their characteristics as compared to protists.


Yeasts are a very important group of fungi. The yeast used in baking bread grows very fast. Since they are heterotrophic they use oxygen and release carbon dioxide. The basic idea of this experiment is to measure the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) released during the growth of yeast. The growth of the yeast stops when one of the nutrients required by the yeast is gone, or when the liquid gets too acidic (low pH) and kills the yeast. To conduct this experiment, follow the directions below.

Keep careful records as while collecting data. This is very important when analyzing, concluding, and submitting work.

Problem: What is the effect of sugar on the growth of yeast?


  • (1 teaspoon size) measuring spoon
  • Permanent marker
  • Active dry yeast (used in baking bread--do not use quick-rising varieties.) This yeast is available in jars if you are planning on doing a large experiment.
  • Bottled soda pop (2 liter size) and water (in a clean 2 liter bottle) in equal amounts.(We suggest at least 2 bottles of each for each treatment)
  • Identical round, thin, non-mylar balloons; (water balloons do not work as well as 'helium quality' balloons.)
  • Different items contain different ounces per container. You may need to pour liquids into measuring cups to be sure you have the same number of ounces in each bottle.

Shake each soda bottle and let the foam settle before opening, then open and allow the contents to go flat overnight.


  • Label each bottle to keep track of what each one contains--2 bottles of water, these are your control group, 2 bottles of soda, the experimental group, so that you can tell bottles containing the same solution (replicates) apart. Color is not a reliable means of identification--the caramel color used in cola is a carbohydrate and the yeast can eat it.
  • Put a level teaspoon of dried yeast in all bottles.
  • Seal the bottles tightly and shake all bottles the same amount of time to dissolve the yeast.
  • Remove the lids and stretch a balloon over the mouth of each bottle. The balloon should fit very tightly so that the carbon dioxide does not leak into the air.
  • Place each container in a warm area out of direct sunlight (top of refrigerator or clothes dryer) where they will not be disturbed.
  • Record the diameters of the balloons, time since the start of experiment, etc. for each bottle. One good method of measurement is to wrap a string around each flattened balloon at its widest point, and then measure the length of the wrapped string using a yardstick. Record any other things you see happen. (Changes in color, possibly leaky balloons, balloons too large etc.)
  • Create a table in which to record your measurements.
  • Measure the diameter of the balloons approximately every 12 hours in both experimental bottles and the control bottles.
  • After 48 hours, calculate the average size of balloons at every measurement. (The average is calculated by adding all the diameters of all the balloons in a treatment then dividing by the number of balloons in the treatment.)
  • Compare the results (average balloon diameters) of the experiment.
  • Prepare a graph of the averages to illustrate your results. (Note: Chart Chooser, a site with all kinds of graphing resources, may be helpful).

Use the following questions to aid in writing your analysis and conclusions:

  • Is the average size of balloons of the experimental group larger than the average of the controls?
  • Is the average of one treatment larger than the averages of the other treatments?
  • Is the amount of sugar in the soda related to the amount of carbon dioxide released into the balloon?
  • Was there a change in the rate of CO2 production at any point in the 48 hours? How would you know?


What do you think might happen if you used diet sodas in the experiment? That would make another great experiment! Ask your teacher if extra credit might be available for developing and conducting your own original experiment with yeast.

Write your conclusion and analysis, include your graph and submit your lab report to the DROPBOX entitled Yeast Experiment.

Adapted from a lesson originally created by the Mushroom Club.

Protists are microscopic, unicellular organisms, with a nucleus and other specialized cell structures.

Before beginning to study the notes on Protists, take a look at the following short video from Teachers Domain titled Single Celled Organisms.


  • 65,000 identified species with almost half extinct
  • found in freshwater, marine, and moist terrestrial habitats
  • many serve as food for other organisms in aquatic habitats; called zooplankton (protozoans) or phytoplankton (algae)
  • all reproduce asexually but a few can also reproduce sexually, exchanging genetic information
  • were the first eukaryotic organisms; thought to have evolved about 1.5 billion years ago
  • protozoans possibly evolved from the first eukaryotes by endosymbiosis

Protists are grouped into 3 general categories:

  1. animal-like - referred to as protozoans (pro means 'first,' and zo refers to 'animals'.the first animals)
  2. plant-like - referred to as algae
  3. fungus-like - referred to as slime molds and water molds

Animal-like Protists

The Protozoans

Some Protists are heterotrophs which means that they cannot make their own food. Most of these protozoans can move and they do not have a cell wall.

Protozoans are divided into 4 main groups based on their MOTILITY (motility refers to their ability to move on their own)

1) Sarcodines- (Rhizopods) amoeba is the most familiar sarcodine; also includes Foraminiferans and Radiolarians

Image sourceCummins qsl9 service manual pdf.

Motility: they have pseudopods (means 'false foot')

  • use their ever moving, shape changing pseudopods to capture food and to move; this is referred to as amoeboid movement.
  • some amoebas that live in freshwater springs in countries such as Mexico can produce a painful diarrhea in those who have not developed an immunity to their effects
  • reproduce by binary fission
  • Radiolarians found in warm, marine waters have a test (shell) made of silica & have sticky pseudopodia to trap food
  • Marine Foraminiferans have a test made of calcium carbonate with holes through which pseudopodia extend
  • Foraminiferan tests build up and form limestone or chalk (e.g. White Cliffs of Dover)
  • Important food source in marine habitats

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2) Ciliates (Ciliophorans) paramecium, stentors and vorticella are the most well known ciliates.

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  • Motility: move using cilia- tiny hair-like structures used to move, beating them helps move food towards the organism
  • have two kinds of nuclei-large nucleus controls life functions & small nucleus controls reproduction called conjugation (similar to the conjugation seen in bacteria)
  • reproduce by binary fission
  • Form protective cysts to survive unfavorable conditions

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3) ZooFlagellates -(or Mastigophorans) Trypanosomes, Trichomonas & Giardia are examples of flagellates that cause illnesses

  • Motility: flagella that twirl or work like a whip
  • absorb nutrients through cell membranes
  • flagellates can be animal-like, plant-like or fungus-like; 'zoo' means animal, so animal-like flagellates are called zooflagellates)
  • Trypanosomes cause sleeping sickness but are carried only by Tsetse flies; Trichomonas vaginalis is sexually transmitted and causes 'trich' in the female vagina; Giardia is found in feces infested fresh water and is a parasite in the human intestine that causes severe abdominal cramps and diarrhea.

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4) Sporozoans - (Apicomplexans); example: Plasmodium; parasitic protozoans that have no means of motility and must depend upon their host for transport to a new source of nutrients

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  • Motility: none
  • parasites which feed on the cells and body fluids of their hosts
  • uses spores to pass from one host to another
  • Plasmodium causes Malaria and is carried by the Anopheles mosquito

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Protozoa Summary


Common Name


Type of Nutrition






some parasitic








some parasitic








some parasitic







none in adults





Plant-like (unicellular algae)

  • autotrophs (able to produce own food)use light energy to make own food from simple raw materials
  • many organisms rely on plant-like protists for food
  • about 50 to 60%% of Earths oxygen is released by plant-like protists
  • many plant-like protists are flagellates, called phytoflagellates- (phyto- means plant)

1) Euglenophytes: Euglenas

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  • plant-like protists that may have 2 flagella but no cell wall, have chlorophyll
  • euglenas have no cell wall and ingest food similar to the way some protozoans do;
  • euglenas are unique in that the are both photosynthetic and heterotrophic
  • possess a red 'eyespot' that enables them to detect light

2) Dinoflagellates: example: Pfiesterias; Also known as Pyrrhophyta ('fire algae'; Greek pyrrhos, fire)

  • some are photosynthetic, and some are heterotrophs,
  • have flagella
  • reproduce by binary fission
  • Pfiesterias (as shown below) are carnivorus and secrete a toxin that kills fish; they then feed on the dead, decaying fish; they are a reddish color and when they occur in massive numbers, they create a 'red tide'; they produce a paralytic toxin that accumulates in shellfish and can be deadly to humans as well as fish

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3) Chrysophytes

  • yellow-green and golden-brown algae
  • are photosynthetic
  • structure is usually symmetrical
  • store food as oil rather than starch

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4) Diatoms

  • produce thin, delicate cell walls rich in silicon (found in glass)
  • Cell walls fit together like a box (the top is just slightly larger than the bottom

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The shells of dead diatoms are mined and ground up to be used as an abrasive in toothpaste and scouring powders.

5) Chlorophyta

  • Green algae, color comes from chloroplasts
  • Have cell walls
  • Store food as starch
  • Mostly freshwater, few marine, some in damp soil, on tree trunks, other damp surfaces
  • Some, such as spirogyra, are multicellular but are not plants because they have a single layer of cells, as a filament, that can be broken up and each segment can still survive independently; they also do not have any specialized cells or tissues.
  • Some, such as Volvox, are colonial, and exist as groups of individual cells that are connected and cells specialize to either reproduce or form the colony sphere; any cell could also break away and form a new colony

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The fur of the Green Tree Sloth gets its color from green algae! It shares a symbiotic relationship with the sloth: the sloth, which lives up in the trees, is camouflaged by the algae, and the algae is exposed to sunlight that is scarce in lower regions of the tropical rain forests where sloths live.

Plant-Like Protists (Red, Brown, and Green Algae)

1) Red Algae: live deep in the water, can harvest light energy very well, contains chlorophyll A and phycobilins; commonly referred to as seaweeds.

2) Brown Algae: contain chlorophyll a and c and a brown pigment called fucoxanthin, largest and most complex algae, found in shallow, cool, costal water. Kelp is the largest.

Fungus-like Protists

Slime molds and water molds

  • can cause disease in crops and animals
  • some fungi can kill off entire crops (grains, potatoes, grapes etc.)
  • can cause sickness in animals (including man)
  • fungus-like protists are heterotrophs

1) Slime Molds:

  • decompose and recycle organic material,
  • have characteristics of protists and fungi

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2) Water Molds: thrive on dead or decaying organic matter in water and are plant parasites on land

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Watch the following BrainPOP videos about protists, protozoa, and algae.

Afterward, go to QUIZZES and take the Algae, Protozoans, and Protists BrainPOP Video Quiz.

There will be a graded, timed assignment check over information from this study guide. It is recommended that you make good notes as you go through the following questions. Your notes may then be used as you take the Assignment Check quiz over the study guide.

1. What is a protist?

2. Which of the following statements are TRUE about protists?

Chapter 19 protists and fungi study guide answers

3. Why are some organisms, such as Kelp, that consists of thousands of cells considered to be protists?

Evolution of Protists

4. The first eukaryotic organisms on Earth were ________.

Classification of Protists

5. Complete the table about protist classification.


Method of Obtaining Food


Consume other organisms

Plantlike protists


Fungus-like protists


6. At one time, what were all animal-like protists called?

7. How are the four phyla of animal-like protists distinguished from one another?

Have notes from the preceding activities with you as you complete this assignment check. You will have 10 minutes to complete this assignment check. Go to the course navigation bar. Proceed to QUIZZES and choose the quiz titled Protists Assignment Check.

One of the things that we would do in a normal face-to-face classroom is look at protists that might be found in pond water under the microscope. Since some of our class members may not have a microscope around the house, we will take a virtual look at some of the organisms one might see under a microscope.

The tiny organisms found in pond water are fascinating subjects to study with the aid of a microscope, and can captivate both beginners and experienced microscopists for a lifetime!

The following virtual pond dip introduces some of the more common types of microorganisms found in bodies of water. Though simulated, the experience encourages an exploration of the incredible world within a world of a real pond.

Go to the Virtual Pond Dip website.

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There are 18 specimens in the jar. Click on an organism to display its fact file and get links to more detailed articles. Each organism's relative size is to scale in the image; actual sizes are given in the fact files. Use the pictures and the fact files at the site to complete the following assignment.

Observe any 10 of the 18 specimens. Gather the following information about each specimen you choose to observe.

  • Name of organism
  • Whether the organism is unicellular or multicellular
  • Size of organism
  • Where to find the organism
  • Detailed description of the organism
  • Food source (For example, what does the organism eat? Is it autotroph or heterotroph?)
  • Special adaptation of organism
  • Unique fact about the organism
  • Classification (include the kingdom, phylum, and class)

Click here to download a digital chart that is useful for collecting information about the specimens in the jar.

For this project, you will select any 4 protozoans and any 4 specimens of algae.

Choose ONE of the following formats for your project:

  • concept map
  • slideshow presentation
  • brochure or
  • a table.

For each species, provide the following:

  1. The scientific name
  2. A picture or diagram showing accurate colors of the organism
  3. How each organism is either beneficial or harmful to humans
  4. The usual habitat or environment where each organism may be found

Keep the project brief and complete by supplying all required information. Use a numbering system, 1 - 4 as above to present your project in an organized and accurate format.

Here are a few web sites that may be helpful in working on this project:

  • The Johnson County Community College page about Protists.
  • The Biology Corner's Protista page and the linked content within the page.
  • The Evolutionary & Integrative Genomics at the Université de Montréal's well-stocked Protists Image Data page.

Your project will be graded using this rubric.

Submit the completed project to the DROPBOX titled: Protists Project.

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Fungi Kingdom contains molds, mildews, rusts, smuts, yeasts, and mushrooms.

All fungi are multicellular except for yeast, which is unicellular. Most fungi are saprobes (live on dead and decaying organic matter) or parasitic (live in or on a host organism from which it takes nutrients)

  • All fungi are heterotrophic; they do not have chloroplasts
  • The saprobes are helpful because they break down organic material returning nutrients to the soil.
  • Yeasts are useful in the making of bread and fermented drinks.
  • Some parasitic fungi are actually human pathogens, causing athlete's foot and ringworm.

Structure of Fungi:

1. Hyphae - the vegetative filament, thin strands only one cell in thickness. Most hyphae have crosswalls that form cells. Hyphae have pores that allow most organelles to diffuse easily from one cell to the next as needed.

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2. The fungi cell wall is made of chitin, a complex polysaccharide also found in the exoskeleton of insects. This distinguishes fungi from plants, which have a cell wall made of cellulose. Within each cell wall is either one or two nuclei and other organelles.

3. Mycelium - a mat of interwoven hyphae. Allows large surface area to come in contact with food source making absorption easier; this is usually the visible body of the fungus and is also the structure involved in reproduction. The mushrooms in the image below are actually the mycelium of the fungus.

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1. Asexual:

Fungi reproduce asexually by budding or by fragmentation. If the hyphae are broken, the pieces will grow into complete new organisms.

Yeasts reproduce by an asexual process called budding. In this process, the yeast cell pinches itself off to produce a small offspring cell as shown in the image below.

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2. Sexual:

Each of the four divisions of fungi have different forms of sexual reproduction but most involve the production of spores in a specialized structure called a basidia in mushrooms, sporangium in bread mold, sac in Orange Cup fungi.

Fungus life cycle:

The life cycle of a fungus begins as a spore (the reproductive body) that grows when conditions are right. Out of the spore wall grows a hypha, that looks like a clear, microscopic fingertip. The body of the fungus is made up of a network of hyphal threads collectively called the mycelium. The mycelium grows in soil or within dead wood or living organisms. This is the part that is usually visible.

When growing conditions are favorable, with moisture and a food source, the mycelium develops fruiting bodies, such as mushrooms or as shelf fungi. These fruiting bodies will produce the new spores.

Spores are very small and can be blown or carried by water a great distance and remain dormant until the environment is sufficiently moist.

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Fungi nutrition:

  • Unlike members of the plant kingdom that use chlorophyll to produce their own food, fungi do not have chlorophyll and must obtain their food from other sources.
  • Fungi obtain food in one, or a combination, of these ways:
    • Fungi act as parasites and feed on living things, usually doing some degree of harm. Parasitic fungi use enzymes to break down tissues, then absorb the nutrients. Examples: the 'Honey Mushroom' (Armillariella mellea) and the 'Cauliflower Mushroom' (Sparassis crispa) or the fungi that causes Athletes Foot and ringworm.

Take a moment to watch the short video clip below to learn more about parasitic fungi.

  • Fungi also form a symbiotic (mutually beneficial) relationship with other organisms such as trees and flowering plants:

a. Ectomycorrhizal fungi grow thick coats of mycelia around the rootlets of trees and bring water and minerals from the soil into the roots. In return the host tree supplies the fungus with sugars, vitamins and other root substances. This relationship occurs in more than 80% of plants. Examples: the Bolete Family associated with many species of conifer trees, aspen and birch, and the 'Dead Man's Foot' (Pisolithus tinctorius) which helps many plants grow.

b. Endomycorrhizal fungi are microscopic soil fungi that penetrate the cells of plant roots. This relationship may be beneficial to both parties or may be harmful to the plant.

FACT: Some predatory soil dwelling fungi grow so rapidly that their hyphae can wrap around a small worm in less than a second; when the worm wiggles, the fungal enzymes weaken the body wall so that the hyphae can penetrate the worm and digest its inner tissues.

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Fig. 1. Nematode captured by the constricting rings of the predatory fungus Arthrobotrys anchonia. Note that the ring cells 'cushion' around the body of the victim but have not yet constricted the body. This is a very early stage after capture. Scanning Electron Micrograph N. Allin and G.L. Barron.

  • Fungi decompose dead plant and animal matter.
  1. These saprobes act as recyclers of dead organic matter, obtaining food from this material.
  2. Hyphal tips release enzymes that eventually decompose and release organic materials into the surrounding environment.
  3. Saprobe fungi appear on dead trees, logs, plant litter such as leaves, and even dead insects and animals.
  4. Examples: 'Gem-studded Puffball' (Lycoperdon perlatum) and 'Turkey Tail' (Trametes versicolor).

Watch the peach in the image below. The fruit is decomposing due to the work of fungi. Photos of the event were taken twelve hours apart over a period of six days.

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Fungi Classification, the Divisions (Phyla)

Zygomycota: also known as 'zygote fungi'

  • Common bread mold & many soil fungi
  • Hyphae lack septa
  • Sexual reproduction is by conjugation

FUN FACT: Some Zygomycotas, the Philbolus fungus, actually aims and 'shoots' its spores as much as 2 m away!

Basidiomycota: also known as 'club fungi'

  • Mushroom, shelf fungi and puffballs
  • Basidium means 'little pedestal' which is what a mushroom looks like.
  • Underground hyphae intertwine and grow upward to produce a reproductive structure called a basidiocarp. This basidiocarp is what we call a mushroom.

FACT: Some mushrooms are edible but many are poison! Never consume wild mushrooms without expert guidance.

Beware of this tiny white mushroom! This is Amanita phalloides and it is deadly!

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Ascomycota: also known as 'sac fungi'

  • Mildews and yeasts (sac fungi)
  • The largest group of fungi, 60,000 identified species
  • Named for the reproductive sacs or Asci that form near the tips of the hyphae. Ascospores are formed here and released into the air when the ascus ruptures. These spores germinate to form new hyphae.
  • Yeast normally reproduce asexually by budding but when conditions are poor, they can develop asci (sacs) and produce spores

The photograph below shows an ascomycete - Sarcoscypha coccinea.

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Deuteromycota: also known as 'imperfect fungi'

  • Penicillium, ringworm, and athlete's foot (imperfect fungi)
  • A sexual reproductive stage has not been observed.

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Lichens: a combination of two organisms

  • lichens are made up of a fungus and either and algae or a photosynthetic bacteria (cyanobacteria) in a mutualistic symbiotic relationship
  • algae make food for the fungi and the fungi trap and hold water for the algae
  • lichens can live on rocks because they secrete enzymes that break rock down into soil; for this reason lichens are frequently the 'pioneer organisms in creating new ecosystems on newly formed or bare rock
  • lichens are very sensitive to the atmosphere and need clean, unpolluted air

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Having had an introduction to fungi it is now time to review and practice what has been learned. Take time to work through the following stations. There will be a graded, timed assignment check over information from this study guide. It is recommended that you make good notes as you go through the questions. Your notes on this study guide as well as the module notes may then be used as you take the Assignment Check quiz over the study guide.

Station 1: Specimens

Take a look at the following photographs of lichens:

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1. What characteristics do the lichens in the photographs have in common? For example, is it easy to observe any particular features or shapes? Consider doing a little research about the different types of lichens.

2. In a lichen relationship, what does each organism provide to the other?

3. Why do you think lichens commonly grow on trees?

Station 2: Use your notes!!!

Station 3: Specimen

Take a look at the following photographs of the mushroom known as Psilocybe zapotecorum.

8. Describe the structure and arrangement of the gills. How would this aid in spore dispersal?

Station 4: Rhizopus

Complete the interactive fill in the blank questions below to answer questions 10 through 12. Click here to download a text version of the interactive.

10. Rhizopus of black bread mold can reproduce both sexually by __________________ and asexually.

11. What is the advantage to reproducing sexually?

12. What does rhizopus usually harm?

Station 5: Shape as an Adaptation

Complete the crossword puzzle below to find the answers to questions 13 through 15

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13. To which fungi division do you think this specimen belongs based on its shape?

14. Why do these organisms tend to grow in a cup shape?

15. Explain how the shape can serve as an adaptation for this organism.

Station 6: Specimen

Look at the following images of mold growing on food.

16. To which division does this specimen belong?

17. These molds are growing on food products. Describe how and why mold can grow on food.

Station 7: Specimen

Look at the following photographs. What do these examples of fungi have in common?

19. Is the following statement true or false?

Station 8: Tinea pedis

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20. What is the common name for the ailment Tinea pedis?

21. What is Chronic hyperkeratotic tinea (view figure 2)?

22. List three reasons why people get Tinea pedis.

Station 9: Imperfect Fungi (Deuteromycota)

23. Why are organisms placed in this phylum?

24. What is the best known fungus in this phylum?

25. Imperfect fungi are most closely related to which fungi phylum?

Visit the following links and complete the drag and drop activity below to find answers to questions 23 through 25.

Links to visit:

  • Fungi - Deuteromycota, Imperfect Fungi via
  • Tom Volk's Fungus of the Month (Penicillium notatum)
  • Slideshow about Ringworm via emedicinehealth

Station 10: Edible Mushrooms

All of the following organisms are edible. Examine each picture and answer the questions.

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27. How does it hold its spores?

28. To what phylum does this organism belong?

29. Explain how this is helpful to humans.

To demonstrate understanding of the importance of Fungi and how such organisms impact other living things, prepare one of the following:

  • slideshow presentation
  • table
  • concept map or
  • brochure.

The finished product must include all of the following information:

1. Six specific fungi with at least one example from each of the four divisions of fungi:

  • Ascomycota
  • Basidiomycota
  • Deuteromycota
  • Zygomycota

2. Include at least 3 fungi that are harmful to humans (see the 'What Kind of Fungi are We Talking About' section or plants.

3. The habitat or environment in which each fungus is commonly found.

4 The niche or purpose of each fungus.

5. A graphic--picture, image or diagram--of each fungus.

Complete reports should be:

  • accurate
  • concise
  • well organized
  • neat/attractive

Here are a few web sites that may be helpful in working on this project:

  • Tom Volk's creative twist on how Fungi could affect an important human interest.
  • The Amazing Fungi site's section on Harmful and Beneficial Fungi is worth exploring.
  • Harmful fungi may be as close as your pillow!
  • The Tree of Life's resources concerning fungi are quite useful.

Your work will be graded using this rubric.

When your project is complete, submit it to the DROPBOX titled Fungi Project.

Earlier in this module, the short video clip our class viewed when reading the Fungi Notes discussed the cause and effects of the Potato Blight. The instructor also related a more current issue: the death of North American Elm Trees due to Dutch Elm Disease.

Use your imagination and what you know about how this parasitic fungi is transmitted to develop a couple of ways this disease might be stopped without harm to other species.

For additional information, visit the link below.

Wikipedia entry for Dutch Elm Disease

Post your response to the DISCUSSION titled: Dutch Elm Discussion.

Read and respond to at least 2 other classmates' ideas. Collaboration can lead to great solutions. Think seriously about how suggestions from the participants in this class might be combined to solve this serious problem.

Watch the short Discovery Education video clips below. While doing so, look and listen for answers to the following questions.

  1. What are the names of several diseases caused by protists?
  2. What are the 3 cell structures used for locomotion by protists?
  3. What can cilia be used for in addition to locomotion?
  4. What is meant by the term amoeboid movement?
  5. What is unique about euglena?
  6. What are vacuoles used for? (Be prepared to identify at least 3 things)
  7. Specifically, what do contractile vacuoles do for protists?
  8. What is meant by the term phagocytosis?
  9. What are 2 reasons that algae are very important?
  10. From what is the cell wall of diatoms made?

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Watch the short Discovery Education video clips below. While doing so, look and listen for answers to the following questions.

  1. What is a lichen?
  2. What special growing conditions do lichens need?
  3. What is the most familiar type of Zygote Fungi?
  4. What are 2 examples of Sac Fungi?
  5. How do Imperfect Fungi reproduce?
  6. What is the most well known and important example of Imperfect Fungi?
  7. What are 3 examples of Club Fungi?
  8. Where are spores produced in Club Fungi?

Video sourceand Image source

The following resource will aid in reviewing microorganisms discussed in this module. The video clips below simulate what one would see if using a microscope in a lab. Please view the following video clips of protists. While doing so, make sketches of each protist shown. This is a non-graded activity. However, students will be required to recognize and identify these and other protists in upcoming assessments.

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The Kingdom Fungi

This section describes the defining characteristics of fungi. It also describes the internal structure of a fungus and explains how fungi reproduce.

What Are Fungi?

1. Indicate the letter of each sentence that is TRUE about fungi.

4. Is the following sentence true or false?

Structure and Function of Fungi

Use the drag and drop activity below to answer questions 5 through 10.

5. Which group of fungi are not multicellular?

6. What are hyphae?

7. How thick is each hypha?

8. In some fungi, what divides the hyphae into cells containing one or two nuclei?

9. What is a mycelium?

10. What is a fruiting body of a fungus?

Reproduction in Fungi

12. Is the following sentence true or false?

How Fungi Spread

16. Why do molds seem to spring up in any location that has the right combination of moisture and food?

17. Is the following sentences are true or false?

18. For a fungal spore to grow, where must it land?

Classification of Fungi

This section describes the characteristics of the four main phyla of fungi. Use the sorting activity below to answer questions 19 through 26.

19. What is a zygomycata?

20. What is an ascus?

21. Is the following sentence true or false? Ascomycetes make up the largest phylum in the kingdom Fungi.

22. Is the following sentence true or false? Yeasts are multicellular ascomycetes.

23. Why are yeasts classified as ascomycetes?

24. From what does the phylum Basidiomycota get its name?

25. Indicate the letter of each example of basidiomycetes.

a. puffballs

b. shelf fungi

c. mushrooms

d. yeasts

26. The phylum Deuteromycota is composed of what fungi?

Ecology of Fungi

This section explains what the main role of fungi is in natural ecosystems. It also describes problems that parasitic fungi cause and describes the kinds of symbiotic relationships that fungi form with other organisms.

27. Why should you never pick or eat any mushrooms found in the wild?

29. What are saprobes?

You should have notes from your Fungi Study Guide completed and with you as you complete the following assignment check. Go to the navigation bar and click on QUIZZES. Choose the quiz titled Fungi Assignment Check.

Use the interactive crossword puzzle below to review information about protists and fungi. Click here for a printable version of the activity.

Go to the navigation bar and click on QUIZZES. Choose the quiz titled Protists and Fungi Review.

The following short, animated lectures are excellent reviews of the required curriculum contained within this module. View each of these resources before taking the exam on this unit.

Kingdom Protista

Plant-like Protists

The Fungi: Overview

The Characteristics of Fungi

Before continuing on to the Unit Test, be sure the following graded items have been completed. Click on a link below to return to the page in the module containing the assignment.

Yeast Experiment (counts as lab)

Algae, Protozoans, and Protists BrainPOP Video Quiz

Protists Assignment Check

Protists Project (counts a project)

Fungi Project (counts as project)

Dutch Elm Discussion

Fungi Assignment Check

Protists and Fungi Review

Go to the navigation bar and click on QUIZZES. Choose the selection titled Protists and Fungi Unit Test.

There will be a graded, timed assignment check over information from this study guide. It is recommended that you make good notes as you go through the following questions. Your notes may then be used as you take the Assignment Check quiz over the study guide.

1. What is a protist?

2. Which of the following statements are TRUE about protists?

3. Why are some organisms, such as Kelp, that consists of thousands of cells considered to be protists?

Evolution of Protists

4. The first eukaryotic organisms on Earth were ________.

Classification of Protists

5. Complete the table about protist classification.


Method of Obtaining Food

Consume other organisms

Plantlike protists

Fungus-like protists

6. At one time, what were all animal-like protists called?

7. How are the four phyla of animal-like protists distinguished from one another?

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